Litum RTLS Technology - Ultra Wideband (UWB) RFID & TDoA

Litum RTLS benefits

UWB (Ultra wideband) RFID

UWB is a radio-based communication technology for short-range use for the fast and stable transmission of data indoors and outdoors. It is based on the combination of very short pulses moving at the speed of light. UWB broadcasts digital pulses that are timed very precisely on a carrier signal across a very wide number of frequency channels at the same time. Transmitter and receiver must be coordinated to send and receive pulses with an accuracy of trillionths of a second. The band width of at least 500 MHz allows an exact measurement of the arrival time and thus a high-precision determination of the positions. UWB technology does not interfere with other technologies because the bandwidth (3.25 — 4.75 GHz and 6.25 — 6.75 GHz) differs from WLAN and ISM radio bands (reserved for industrial, scientific and medical use) , and the signal strength is very limited. UWB radio not only can carry a huge amount of data over a distance up to 230 feet (70 m) at a very low power (less than 0.5 milliwatts), but has the ability to carry signals through doors and other obstacles that tend to reflect signals at more limited bandwidths and a higher power.

Two-Way Ranging (TWR)

TWR offers maximum precision and positional stability. The anchor sends a UWB signal and the sensor returns it. The distance between the anchor and the sensor is determined by the time required for the UWB pulses. A position can be determined as soon as the distance of a sensor relative to different anchors is available. The TWR method is mainly used for the localization of workers, tools, and navigation of driverless transport systems.

Time-Difference of Arrival (TDoA)

In the TDoA position determination the sensor transmits a signal which is received by the anchors at different intervals relative to the distance of the sensor. The position of the sensor is determined by the interval differences. Positioning with TDoA is mainly used for the localization of a large number of objects. It has the lowest energy consumption among the available methods on the market.

Angle-of-Arrival (AoA)

The AoA method evaluates the phase difference between the received signals at the two antennas of an anchor. Based on this, the angle of the signal relative to the anchor is calculated and thus the position of the sensor can be determined. AoA is generally used for position determination when there is a limited infrastructure and additional information is to be used by the sensor signals.

Litum location engine

A location engine is a server that interprets all the data the RTLS system is collecting through its mesh network. At the end of this process spaghetti diagrams, heatmaps and many other types of visual reporting can be produced.

Litum business rule engine (BRE)

A business rule engine (BRE) is a component of software allowing non-programmers to change the business logic in a business process management (BPM) system. To carry out a business policy or procedure, a business rule or statement is required. Business logic uses data in a database and a sequence of operations to carry out the business rule.

Litum BRE allows businesses to create as many rules as they require to effectively manage safety and efficiency in their operations. Business rules could be as simple as “social distancing” or as complex as “crane work zone safety”.